--Political, Social, and Economic Information
Mongolia is located in north-central Asia, surrounded by Russia to
the north and China to the south.› With slightly over two million people
living in 604,000 square miles, Mongolia has one of the lowest population
densities in the world.› An area where upland steppes, deserts, high
forested mountain ranges and dry lake basins converge, Mongolia has
a marked continental climate with long, cold winters and short cool
to hot summers.›
Although Mongolia gained independence from China in 1921, it maintained
close ties with the Soviet Union and only became a democracy in 1990.›
Outside the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia has one of the last
remaining horse-based nomadic cultures.› The country has a virtually
pristine ecosystem because it has remained largely unscarred by industrialization
and economic development.› Lake Hovsgol is one of the purest freshwater
bodies in the world, which makes it an excellent site to study.› Unfortunately,
after the withdrawal of the Soviet UnionŪs financial support, Mongolia
faced an economic crisis and development began to occur as a result
of gold deposits.› In recent years, many groups have encouraged ecotourism
to replace development as a means to support the economy, including
the Institute for Mongolian Biodiversity & Ecological Studies based
at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. In addition, the
government has developed a plan to set aside areas of protected territory.
The following list provides some general information on Mongolia and
its political, economical, and social conditions.›› Information about
travel to and in Mongolia, including ecological travel companies, is
The Mongolia Homepage is an Avery Press publication. Avery Press is
a virtual publishing company with offices located in Mongolia. The purpose
of this web site, as stated by Avery press "is to inform and entertain
readers with images and news about [Mongolia]. One of its aims is to
give a wider audience to Mongolian research and scholarship, and the
Homepage will feature original articles by both western and Mongolian
scientists and scholars."
Home page of online journal that is produced by two Mongolian journalists.›
Besides information found in each issue, the journal provides additional
links on Mongolia and travel information.
--Scully, M. G. (2000, March 24). The struggle to protect a pristine
Mongolian Lake. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved
March 10, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.chronicle.com/free/v46/i29/29b01201.htm
This article describes how Clyde E. Goulden found out about Lake Hovsgol
and explains why the lake provides an excellent site to study. Mongolia's
economic condition and the effects this condition will have on the environment
also are discussed.
Worden, R. L. & Savada, A.M. (Eds.) (1989). Mogolia: A country
study.› Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
--U.S. Department of State. (2000, June 8). Mongolia: Consular information
sheet. Retrieved March 10, 2001 from the World Wide Web: (http://travel.state.gov/mongolia.html)
Compiled by the U.S. State Department, this sheet gives factual information
for people who may be traveling or moving to Mongolia. Information includes
entry and exit requirements and data about safety and travel conditions
This is a link to a company that provides ecotours to Mongolia.› Page
provides brief description of Mongolia and its culture.
This company works to promote cultural education of Mongolia through
its expeditions.› Web site provides information about MongoliaŪs people,
geography, and culture.
Political, Social, and Economic
--The 2001 index of economic freedom. (2001). Washington, DC:
Heritage Foundation. Retrieved March 3, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
This online version of the Index of Economic Freedom provides
statistics on the current economic condition of Mongolia.› Web site
allows you to search for various countries and to make comparisons between
multiple regions of the world.
--Mongolia at Countrywatch.com. Houston, TX: Countrywatch.com.
Retrieved March 14, 2001. http://www.countrywatch.com/files/118/cw_country.asp?vCOUNTRY=118
Comprehensive, current information on Mongolia, including political,
economic, business, and environmental sections. Key statistical data
--Global advice: Mongolia. (2001). London: BUPA. Retrieved March
3, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
This web site from a United Kingdom health care provider gives information
to people traveling to Mongolia.› Information includes customs, currency,
and social, business, and historical profiles.
--Library of Congress Country Studies. Washington, DC: Library
of Congress. Retrieved March 14, 2001. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/csquery.html
"÷on-line versions of÷Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored
by the U.S. Department of Army.Ó Enter "Mongolia" in the search
box. Best source for military-related information. Not updated regularly.
--Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia.› (2000).› Country Profile.›
Retrieved March 2, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia (MRAM), an independent implementing
agency of the Mongolian Government, has compiled this page, which provides
a concise overview of the geography, climate, people, and political
profile of Mongolia.
--Simpson, J.L.› Communism to Capitalism in Mongolia: Economic reform
1991-1998. Retrieved March 3, 2001 form the World Wide Web: http://www.cbs.curtin.edu.au/ef/wp/9901.htm
Dr. John L. Simpson is a professor in the department of Economics and
Finance at Curtin University of Technology, Australia.›› This paper
provides a historical account of the major developments in economic
reform in Mongolia from 1991-1998. It examines key tabulated economics
and trade, foreign investment and privatization data, and endeavors
to draw conclusions from the trends in that data.› A bibliography is
--Clement, S. (1999).› Ulaanbaatar City museum guide.› Ulaanbaatar.net.
Retrieved March 3, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
This guide provides a žtourÓ of the capital cityŪs museums, which includes
pictures, hours of operation, and brief descriptions of each museum.
Scott Clement, manager of the computer services division of Exodus
International, Ltd, developed Ulaanbaatar.net.›› This web site aims
to give the world a single place to learn about Ulaanbaatar and to make
Ulaanbaatar, a place that seems worlds away to many westerners, more
--U.S. Ů Mongolia relations.› (1996, October 1). Washington,
DC: U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs. Retrieved March
3, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.state.gov/www/regions/eap/fs-mong.html
Fact Sheet released by the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public
Affairs, which›discusses political and economical relations between
the two countries. (Not updated).
--World Factbook 2000. (2000).› Mongolia.› Washington, DC: Central
Intelligence Agency.› Retrieved March 3, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
The Factbook provides a map and general overview of Mongolia including
information on its geography, people, government, economy, communications,
transportation, and military.