1. Mongolia

--Political, Social, and Economic Information


Mongolia is located in north-central Asia, surrounded by Russia to the north and China to the south.› With slightly over two million people living in 604,000 square miles, Mongolia has one of the lowest population densities in the world.› An area where upland steppes, deserts, high forested mountain ranges and dry lake basins converge, Mongolia has a marked continental climate with long, cold winters and short cool to hot summers.›

Although Mongolia gained independence from China in 1921, it maintained close ties with the Soviet Union and only became a democracy in 1990.› Outside the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia has one of the last remaining horse-based nomadic cultures.› The country has a virtually pristine ecosystem because it has remained largely unscarred by industrialization and economic development.› Lake Hovsgol is one of the purest freshwater bodies in the world, which makes it an excellent site to study.› Unfortunately, after the withdrawal of the Soviet UnionŪs financial support, Mongolia faced an economic crisis and development began to occur as a result of gold deposits.› In recent years, many groups have encouraged ecotourism to replace development as a means to support the economy, including the Institute for Mongolian Biodiversity & Ecological Studies based at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. In addition, the government has developed a plan to set aside areas of protected territory.

The following list provides some general information on Mongolia and its political, economical, and social conditions.›› Information about travel to and in Mongolia, including ecological travel companies, is also provided.




--Mongolia Homepage

The Mongolia Homepage is an Avery Press publication. Avery Press is a virtual publishing company with offices located in Mongolia. The purpose of this web site, as stated by Avery press "is to inform and entertain readers with images and news about [Mongolia]. One of its aims is to give a wider audience to Mongolian research and scholarship, and the Homepage will feature original articles by both western and Mongolian scientists and scholars."

--Mongolia Today

Home page of online journal that is produced by two Mongolian journalists.› Besides information found in each issue, the journal provides additional links on Mongolia and travel information.

--Scully, M. G. (2000, March 24). The struggle to protect a pristine Mongolian Lake. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved March 10, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.chronicle.com/free/v46/i29/29b01201.htm

This article describes how Clyde E. Goulden found out about Lake Hovsgol and explains why the lake provides an excellent site to study. Mongolia's economic condition and the effects this condition will have on the environment also are discussed.

Worden, R. L. & Savada, A.M. (Eds.) (1989). Mogolia: A country study.› Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.




--U.S. Department of State. (2000, June 8). Mongolia: Consular information sheet. Retrieved March 10, 2001 from the World Wide Web: (http://travel.state.gov/mongolia.html)

Compiled by the U.S. State Department, this sheet gives factual information for people who may be traveling or moving to Mongolia. Information includes entry and exit requirements and data about safety and travel conditions in Mongolia.

--Nemekh Tour

This is a link to a company that provides ecotours to Mongolia.› Page provides brief description of Mongolia and its culture.

--Nomadic Expeditions

This company works to promote cultural education of Mongolia through its expeditions.› Web site provides information about MongoliaŪs people, geography, and culture.



Political, Social, and Economic Information

--The 2001 index of economic freedom. (2001). Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation. Retrieved March 3, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://database.townhall.com/heritage/index/country.cfm?ID=99.0

This online version of the Index of Economic Freedom provides statistics on the current economic condition of Mongolia.› Web site allows you to search for various countries and to make comparisons between multiple regions of the world.

--Mongolia at Countrywatch.com. Houston, TX: Countrywatch.com. Retrieved March 14, 2001. http://www.countrywatch.com/files/118/cw_country.asp?vCOUNTRY=118

Comprehensive, current information on Mongolia, including political, economic, business, and environmental sections. Key statistical data provided.

--Global advice: Mongolia. (2001). London: BUPA. Retrieved March 3, 2001 from the World Wide Web:

This web site from a United Kingdom health care provider gives information to people traveling to Mongolia.› Information includes customs, currency, and social, business, and historical profiles.

--Library of Congress Country Studies. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Retrieved March 14, 2001. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/csquery.html

"÷on-line versions of÷Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Army.Ó Enter "Mongolia" in the search box. Best source for military-related information. Not updated regularly.

--Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia.› (2000).› Country Profile.› Retrieved March 2, 2001 from the World Wide Web:

Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia (MRAM), an independent implementing agency of the Mongolian Government, has compiled this page, which provides a concise overview of the geography, climate, people, and political profile of Mongolia.

--Simpson, J.L.› Communism to Capitalism in Mongolia: Economic reform 1991-1998. Retrieved March 3, 2001 form the World Wide Web: http://www.cbs.curtin.edu.au/ef/wp/9901.htm

Dr. John L. Simpson is a professor in the department of Economics and Finance at Curtin University of Technology, Australia.›› This paper provides a historical account of the major developments in economic reform in Mongolia from 1991-1998. It examines key tabulated economics and trade, foreign investment and privatization data, and endeavors to draw conclusions from the trends in that data.› A bibliography is included.

--Clement, S. (1999).› Ulaanbaatar City museum guide.› Ulaanbaatar.net. Retrieved March 3, 2001 from the World Wide Web:

This guide provides a žtourÓ of the capital cityŪs museums, which includes pictures, hours of operation, and brief descriptions of each museum.

--Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.›

Scott Clement, manager of the computer services division of Exodus International, Ltd, developed Ulaanbaatar.net.›› This web site aims to give the world a single place to learn about Ulaanbaatar and to make Ulaanbaatar, a place that seems worlds away to many westerners, more accessible.

--U.S. Ů Mongolia relations.› (1996, October 1). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs. Retrieved March 3, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.state.gov/www/regions/eap/fs-mong.html

Fact Sheet released by the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, which›discusses political and economical relations between the two countries. (Not updated).

--World Factbook 2000. (2000).› Mongolia.› Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.› Retrieved March 3, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html

The Factbook provides a map and general overview of Mongolia including information on its geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, and military.