3. Crane Flies
--Selected Journal Articles and Books
--Societies & Associations
--Museum & Library Collections
--Researchers on the Web
Jon Gelhaus explains that "the crane fly families
Tipulidae, Limoniidae and Cylindrotomidae make up the superfamily Tipuloidea;
together they constitute over 15,000 described species with estimates
of 10-15,000 species remaining to be described...The families have been
traditionally treated as a single family, the Tipulidae s.l., in American
and British literature. Crane fly adults are long-legged, slender bodied
flies, while larvae inhabit a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial
habitats and exhibit a broad range of feeding strategies. Crane flies
can make up a significant portion of the biodiversity in edges of aquatic
habitats, and adults, whether from terrestrial or aquatic habitats,
generally congregate along aquatic environments."
Keep in mind, as described above, that there are two
different naming conventions for crane flies: one for Anglo-America
and one for Europe. British and American entomologists generally place
all crane flies into the family Tipulidae, while European entomologists
designate crane flies as making up a super-family, Tipuloidea, with
three families, Tipulidae, Limoniidae, and Cylindrotomidae.
--Photo Gallery: Primitive
Crane Fly / Crane
Fly1 / Crane
Fly2 / Crane
Fly Larva / Tipula
Simplex / Tipula
Paludosa / Tipula
Absominalis / Tipula
Paludosa Larva /
This project attempts to compile a database of all Australian animal
species. The entry for Tipulidae includes an introduction with references
and a bibliography. Clickable links lead finally to the species level
where taxonomy, geographic distribution, and the discoverer are given.
Some descriptions include maps.
--Biosystematic Database of World Diptera
"The BioSystematic Database of World Diptera (BDWD) contains both
authoritative and work records. Some of the names in the BDWD have been
reviewed by experts and certified to the highest scientific standards.
Most names have not been reviewed by experts nor certified." Created
in response to the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1994, this
database, still under construction, aims to create in one location a
record of all diptera that have been identified. In addition to searching
by nomenclature, there will also soon be a databases for species and
--Craneflies. (1999, October 11). Washington, DC: United States
Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved February 12, 2001 from the
World Wide Web:›
This is the EPA's entry for crane flies in its Biological Indicators
of Watershed Health site. The crane fly "indicates moderately clean
water; seldomly found in polluted waters." In addition, there are
numerous links to other sites concerning bioassessment.
--Evenhuis, N. L. (1994). Fossil Diptera Tipulidae. Honolulu,
HI: Department of Natural Science, Bishop Museum. Retrieved March 1,
2001 from the World Wide Web:
This is the Tipulidae entry for the Fossil Diptera Catalog at the Bishop
Museum in Hawaii. There are two schools of classification for this family
of diptera: the Anglo-American in which the Tipulidae are lumped into
one category, and the European in which the family is broken into three
different categories. The Fossil Diptera Catalog follows the European
convention, thus the above three entries. This site provides the fossill
record of diptera, with genus, species, date of discovery, the discoverer
and the geologic age of the fossil.
--Fowler, K. C. (2000). Tipula: Crane flies. Discover Life.
Retrieved March 10, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
This paper provides some general information on crane flies including
some specific species information. The resources used by the author
are included in a bibliography.
--HYPP: Hyperm»dia en protection des plantes (1998). Paris:
INRA. Retrieved March 10, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
From the (French) Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, this
site provides information on "pests" of Western Europe that
prey on agricultural products. The entry for Tipulidae gives a brief
description of the family, as well as links to a definition of "thorax",
descriptions of the order diptera, and a detailed description of the
marsh crane fly (Tipula paludosa), which includes its biology, life
cycle, damage, and a number of fine images.
--Johns, P. M. (2000). Tipulidae species 2000 checklist. Christchurch,
New Zealand: New Zealand School of Forestry, University of Canterbury.
Retrieved February 19, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
Beyond the lengthy alphabetical list of
Tipulidae species, this web site includes some physical desciptive notes
regarding certain species.› The list seems to be focused on species
found primarily in New Zealand.› Note: This list differs from OosterbroekŪs
in its treatment of the Limonia genus.
--Lackawanna River True Flies. (2000, March 21). Lackawanna
River Corridor Association. Retrieved February 22, 2001 from the World
The Lackawanna River Corridor Association in Pennsylvania "was
created by local citizens in 1987 to promote the restoration and conservation
of the Lackawanna River and its watershed resources." This page
contains very fine images of the larvae of five different families of
diptera, the first of which is of the crane fly.
--Lyon, W.F. (2001). Fact sheets from Ohio State University: Midges
and crane flies. Ohio: Ohio State University. Retrieved March 1,
2001 from the World Wide Web:
This information is provided by the School of Food, Agricultural, and
Environmental Sciences for both homeowners and farmers. Included are
short sections on indentification, life cycle and habits, control measures,
prevention, and insecticides.
--Oosterbroek, P. (2000). Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian
and Oceanian Regions: Tipulidae. Retrieved March 10 from the World
Written by Pjotr Oosterbroek, this page introduces the family Tipulidae
and then lists the species that have been found.
--Oosterbroek, P. (1999). Family TIPULIDAE. In Neal L. Evenhuis (Ed.),
Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian regions
(Chapter 2).› Retrieved February 19, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
This page presents a classification of the
Tipulidae that is based heavily upon the work of Charles P. Alexander.›
Breaks down the Tipulidae into genus, subgenus, and species levels.›
It is part of a much larger catalog of families of the Diptera order
occuring in Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and the Pacific.›
--Sear, Dexter.› Bugbios.› Retrieved
February 26, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.insects.org/entophiles/diptera/dipt_003.html
A very brief synopsis of Tipulidae, but a very interesting site on
insects in general.
--Wiegmann, B. M. & Yeates, D. K. (1997, January 16). Diptera:
True Flies. Retrieved February 19, 2000 from the World Wide Web:
This is a good introduction to diptera, with an introduction and discussion
on the characteristics, major groupings, and phylogenetic relationships.
Selected Jounal Articles and Books
Brodo, F. (1995). Analysis and additions
to the crane fly fauna of Finse, south Norway (Diptera: Tipulidea [Tipuloidea]).
Fauna Norvegica Series B, 42 (1), 11-20.
Buzby, K. M, Gelhaus, J. K. & Masteller,
E. C. (1993). Emergence composition and phenology of Tipulidae (Diptera)
from a tropical rainforest stream at El Verde, Puerto Rico. Journal
of the Kansas Entomological Society, 66 (2), 160-166.
de Jong, H. (1987). Keys for the identification
of the Tipuloidea (Insecta, Diptera) recorded for the Canary Islands.
Eos-Revista Espanola de Entomologia, 63, 73-92.
de Jong, H. (1994). The phylogeny of the
subgenus Tipula (Savtshenkia) (Diptera: Tipulidae), with special reference
to the western Mediterranean fauna. Tijdschrift Voor Entomologie,
37 (2), 271-323.
Dufour, C. (1991). The identity of Tipula
(Emodotipula) saginata Bergroth and T. (E.) obscuriventris Strobl, and
the description of Tipula (E.) leo sp. n. from the Sierra Nevada in
Spain (Diptera, Tipulidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen
Gesellschaft, 64 (1-2), 81-91.
Dufour, C. (1983). Tipula (Savtshenkia)
tulipa sp. n. from the xerothermic valleys of the Swiss Alps (Diptera:
Tipulidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft,
56 (3-4), 275-281.
Dufour, C. (1992). High altitude Tipulidae
in Switzerland (Diptera, Nematocera). ACTA Zoologica Cracoviensia,
Dufour, C. B. J. (1984). Les differentes
etapes de la perte de l'aptitude au vol chez les tipulides et les limonides
(Diptera, Nematocera) vivant sous climat froid. Bulletin D'Ecologie,
15 (3), 185-198.
Gelhaus, J. K. (1986). Larvae of the crane
fly genus Tipula in North America (Diptera tipulidae). University
of Kansas Science Bulletin, 53 (3), 121-182.
Gelhaus, J. K. & Livingston, M. E. (1993).
Further observations on the emergence composition and phenology of crane
flies (Diptera: Tipulidae) from a tropical rain forest stream at El
Verde, Puerto Rico. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society,
66 (4), 405-410.
Gelhaus, J. K. & Teale, S. A. (1984).
Natural history and synonomy of Tipula (Vestiplex) platymera Walker
(Diptera: Tipulidae) with descriptions of the larvae and pupae. Journal
of the Kansas Entomological Society, 57 (3), 423-429.
Gelhaus, J. K. & Welch, N. (1994). A
new species of Helius crane fly (Diptera: Tipulidae) with reduced antennae,
from Aripo Caves, Trinidad. Entomological News, 105 (3), 125-132.
Grimaldi, D. & Young, C. (1992). Observations
on the bizarre jelly mass habit of larval Geranomyia (Diptera: Tipulidae:
Limoniinae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 100 (4),
Johnson, R. & Gelhaus, J. K. (1996).
First record of crane flies (Tipulidae: Limoniinae) in Upper Cretaceous
amber from New Jersey, U.S.A. Transactions of the American Entomological
Society (Phildelphia), 122 (1), 55-65.
Lauzon, M. & Harper, P. P. (1985). The
crane fly fauna of a Laurentian woodland, with special reference to
the aquatic species (Diptera: Tipulidae). Revue D'Entomologie du
Quebec, 30 (1-2), 3-22.
Oosterbroek, P. (1994). Notes on western
Palaearctic species of the Tipula (Yamatotipula) lateralis group, with
the description of a new species from Turkey (Diptera: Tipulidae). European
Journal of Entomology, 91 (4), 429-435.
Oosterbroek, P., Theowald, B. & Dufour,
C. (1982). The zoogeography of the western Palaearctic Tipulidae (Diptera).
Part 4: the Tipulidae of Corsica and Sardinia with a note on Dolichopeza
fuscipes Bergroth. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen
Gesellschaft, 55 (3-4), 317-332.
Oosterbroek, P., Theowald, B. & Dufour,
C. (1989). 2. Superfamily Tipuloidea. Family Tipulidae. Bishop Museum
Special Publication, 86, 53-116.
Podenas, S. (1994). Crane-flies (Diptera:
Tipulidae) of Lithuania. Vilniaus Universitetas Biologija Mokslo
Darbu Rinkinys, 31, 16-22.
Podenas, S. & Gelhaus, J. (2000). A
new species of long-palped crane fly in the subgenus Tipula (Odonatisca)
(Diptera: Tipulidae) from Mongolia. Transactions of the American
Entomological Society (Phildelphia), 126 (1), 109-115.
Sullivan, D. J. & Knizeski, H. M. Jr.
(1984). Temporal distribution of crane flies (Diptera: Tipulidae) in
a southern New York woodland. Canadian Entomologist, 116 (8),
Teskey, H. J. & Krzeminski, W. (1987).
New taxa of Limoniidae (Diptera: Nematocera) from Canadian amber. Canadian
Entomologist, 119 (10), 887-892.
Theowald, B. & Oosterbroek, P. (1991).
Phylogeny of the Tipuloidea based on characters of larvae and pupae
(Diptera, Nematocera): with an index to the literature except Tipulidae.
Tijdschrift Voor Entomologie, 134 (2), 211-267.
Wrage, H. A. (1978). Uber Structur und
Abwandlung der Stelzenmucken-Populationen im Okosystem 'Salzwiese' der
Nordseekuste (Limoniidae, Diptera, Nematocera). Mitteilungen der
Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 1
Young, C. W. (1978). Comparison of the
crane flies (Diptera: Tipulidae) of two woodlands in eastern Kansas,
with a key to the adult crane flies of eastern Kansas. University
of Kansas Science Bulletin, 51 (12), 407-440.
Young, C. W. (1999). New species and immature
instars of crane flies of subgenus Tipulodina Enderlein from Sulawesi
(Insecta: Diptera: Tipulidae: Tipula). Annals of the Carnegie Museum,
68 (2), 81-90.
Young, C. W., Onore, G. & Proano, K.
(1999). First occurrence of Tipula (Tipula) oleracea. Journal of
the Kansas Entomological Society 72 (2), 226-232.
Young, C.W. & Gelhaus. J. K. (1991).
The immature instars and biology of the crane fly genus Brachypremna
Osten Sacken (Diptera: Tipulidae). Proceedings of the Entomological
Society of Washington, 93 (3), 613-621.
Young, C. W. & Gelhaus, J. K. (1995).
Pupae of the crane fly genus Leptotarsus (Diptera: Tipulidae) in the
New World, with discussion of the monophyly of the genus. Annals
of the Carnegie Museum, 64 (2), 135-145.
Brodo, Fenja. (1987). Revision of the
genus Prionocera (Diptera, Tipulidae). Chicago, IL: Evolutionary
Byers, G. W. (1984). Tipulidae (Chapter
24, pp. 491-514) In R. W. Merrit & K. W. Cummins (Eds.) An Introduction
to the Aquatic Insects, 2nd ed. (pp. 219-223). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Dickinson, W. E. (1939). Crane-flies
of Wisconsin, by W. E. Dickinson; with a description of a new species
by C. P. Alexander. Milwaukee, WI: Public Museum of the city of
Garrett, C. B. D. (1925). Seventy new
Diptera; key to the Pseudoleria Helomyzidae. Cipulidae, Chiromidae (1),
Dixinae, Orphnephilidae, Mycetophilidae. Cranbrook, B. C., Cranbrook
Gelhaus, J. K. (1989). Systematics and
biogeography of the desert crane fly subgenus Tipula (Eremotipula).
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Kansas, Entomology.
Loew, H. (1862-73). Monographs of the
Diptera of North America. Prepared for the Smithsonian Institution.
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.›
Scudder, S. H. (1894). Tertiary Tipulidae:
with special reference to those of Florissant, Colorado. [Philadelphia
: American Philosophical Society].
Young, C. & Gelhaus, J. (2000). Crane
flies of Pennsylvania : preliminary checklist and database development
with emphasis on aquatic species [Pennsylvania: s.n.]›
--The following is a listing of the major entomological societies,
associations, and organizations in the United States, Australia, New
Zealand, England, and Canada. Every State in the United States, as well
as every territory and province in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand,
has their own local entomological society. For listings of these organizations,
as well as other international entomological organizations, please see
the Directory of Entomological Societies created by Scientific Reference
Entomological Society of America
American Board of Forensic Entomology
The American Entomological Society
Association of Applied Insect Ecologists
Center for Systematic Entomology, Inc.
Pacific Coast Entomological Society
Entomological Society of Cananda
Western Australian Insect Study Society, Inc.
Entomological Society of New Zealand
The Amateur EntomologistsŪ Society
The British Entomological and Natural History Society
& Library Collections
Museums and Special collections containing Tipulidae
--Invertebrate Zoology Collections at Carnegie Museum of Natural History
The insect collection contains an estimated 13 million specimens of
which 6,900,000 are prepared, labelled and ready for study. Primary
strength is Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, but does have a strong collection
in Diptera (approximately 5.5% of the collection), which includes various
types of Tipulidae.
--Cornell University Insect Collection
There is a long history of Diptera holdings at Cornell University.
The Diptera are housed in 980 drawers (approximately 9% of the pinned
collection). It is worldwide in scope, and is particularly strong for
eastern North America. A recent inventory revealed over 700 primary
types, and over 1100 secondary types. Tipulidae account for about 17
drawers in the collection.
--The Academy of Natural Sciences
The Insect Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences contains over
3 million specimens, including 13,000 primary types, and has one of
the most important holdings of Orthoptera in the world.
--Entomology and Arachnology-University of Colorado http://www.colorado.edu/CUMUSEUM/research/entomology/entomology.html
The Entomology Collection at the University of Colorado Museum contains
approximately 500,000 insect and 50,000 arachnid specimens dating back
to the 1870's. The Entomology Collection is rich in material from the
Rocky Mountain Region, but also contains specimens from throughout the
United States and other parts of the world, including Mexico, Tunisia
and New Guinea. The collection includes 70 families of Diptera, in which
23 Genera of Tipulidae are represented.
--Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County- Entomology Section
The insect collection of the LACM is the largest in southern California,
and ranked approximately 10th in size in North America. Its strengths
are in material from California, Mexico and Central America, but include
worldwide representation for many groups. The collection houses 21 families
of Diptera including Tipulidae.
--University of Wisconsin, Madison Entomology Department Insect Research
The IRC contains about one million pinned and preserved insects with
primary geographic emphasis on Wisconsin and the Great Lakes Region.
Diptera (including Tipulidae) make up about 17% of the collection.
--University of Queensland Insect Collection
The UQIC is a research collection first started in the 1920's by F.A.
Perkins, the first lecturer in entomology at the University of Queensland.
The collection consists of more than 700,000 specimens of insects and
related arthropods and contains material from all Australian states
and territories and a limited amount of foreign material. The orders
best represented are Coleoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. The Diptera
collection contains 19 Genera of Tipulidae.
--Maurice T. James Entomological Collection- Washington State University
The M. T. James Entomological Collection houses just over 1.25 million
specimens of insects and related arthropods as well as a significant
library and collection of photographic slides. Diptera represent the
largest holdings with just over 500,000 specimens. The collection of
Tipulidae includes representatives of the first specimens collected
in the Pacific Northwest.
--Ohio State University- Museum of Biological Diversity
The Ohio State niversity Museum of Biological Diversity emphasis has
been on the orders Coleoptera and Homoptera, but its holdings does contain
several Genera of Tipulidae.
--Swedish Museum of Natural History- Entomology department
The Swedish Museum of Natural History contains 6185 speciesof Diptera
(over 40 different Genera of Tipulidae) as of 25 May 2000 representing
about 5% of the world fauna.
--Texas A & M University Insect Collection
The Department of Entomology at Texas A&M University is home to the
largest and fastest growing insect collection in the south-central and
southwestern United States. At the end of 1997, the collection housed
an estimated 1.55 million specimens. Some specific areas of strength
of the collection are: Coleoptera (especially Chrysomelidae and Curculionidae),
Diptera (especially muscoid Diptera), Heteroptera (especially Miridae)
and Hymenoptera (especially Chalcidoidea, Braconidae and Ichneumonidae).
The Diptera collection contains 1 genus of Tipulidae and 10 identified
--The University of Guelph Insect Collection
The University of Guelph Insect Collection has its roots in the insect
collection of the Entomological Society of Ontario, founded in 1863.
It is the oldest insect collection in Canada. In addition to its strong
collection of Ontario insects, it houses an excellent collection of
Diptera from around the world, including 2,232 pinned psecimens of Tipulidae.
--University of Michigan Museum of Zoology- Insect Division
The collection of Tipulidae, built by J.S. Rogers, is extensive in
that, although largely limited to species from eastern North America,
it contains a large series of specimens of each species and the finest
collection of reared larvae and pupae in the world. Other dipteran groups
well represented by North and Central American material include the
Tabanidae, Bombyliidae, Dolichopodidae, Syrphidae, Stratiomyidae and
--For additional listings of museums and special collections that contain
Diptera, Iowa State University has created an Entomology Index of Internet
Resources. This site is a directory and search engine for insect-related
resources on the Internet. The index can be found at http://www.ent.iastate.edu/list/
Researchers on the Web
--Dufour, C. & Haenni, J. P. (2001). Entomologie: Christophe
Dufour et Jean-Paul Haenni. Mus»um d'histoire naturelle, Neuchatel.
Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.ne.ch/neuchatel/mhn/scientifique/entomologie.htm
--Evenhuis, N. L. (2001). Email Address List for Diptera Systematists.
Department of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum: World Diptera Systematists
Home Page. Retrieved February 19, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.bishop.hawaii.org/bishop/ento/dipterists/diptera-email.html
--Young, C. (2001]). Section of Invertebrate Zoology Staff: Dr.
Chen Young, Associate Curator. Carnegie Museum of Natural History.
Retrieved February 19, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
http://www.clpgh.org/cmnh/iz/index.html (Click on Staff link to
access Dr. YoungŪs web page.)